Programming Concepts C – 01

Basic knowledge for Programming Concepts C

Algorithm – a simple step-by-step instructions that describe how
to accomplish a task.

Desk Checking – also called Hand Tracing – method where you check
the results by stepping through each step in the algorithm by hand.

Program – a “coded” algorithm

Output – the goal of the program

IPO Chart – organizes Inputs, Processing, and Outputs of an

Problem specifications sometimes have *too much* information

Problem specifications sometimes have *not enough* information

Pseudocode – a tool programmers use to help them plan a program.
Usually human understandable, but computers can not (i.e. not language

Flowchart – uses standardized symbols to show the steps of an

Valid Data – data which the programmer is expecting the user to

Invalid Data – data which the programmer is not expecting the user
to enter.

variables – memory locations that the computer uses to store

keywords – words which have a special meaning in a programming

statement – an instruction to perform an operation.

streams – sequence of characters used by C++ for input and output.


INPUT: cin >> length; >> called the extraction

OUTPUT: cout << “This is output.” – <<
called the insertion operator

endl – used to denote the end of line for output to the
screen.  Flushes the buffer and makes a new line on the screen.

debugging – the process of removing errors from the program

syntax error – an instruction/statement which violates the rules
of a programming language.

Variables and Named Constants are locations in a computer’s memory where
a program can temporarily store data.

Types of variables:


Whole Numbers – can not have a part of a number

  • byte
  • int
  • long

Fractional (Decimal) – can have part of a whole, or fractional
values.  eg: 3.1

  • float
  • double


  • string – multiple characters
  • char – single character

Each variable has different memory requirements.  And each will take
up the space of the whole variable type, regardless of the amount of usage.

Named Constants cannot change value while the program is running. 
Are set by using the const keyword.

        eg. const double PI = 3.1415;

The name of a variable is called its identifier

Assignment Statement – assigns a value to an existing variable 
eg, x = 10;


Copyright ©2001-2002, Walter Wimberly – Instructor and all
’round Cool Guy – IADT